Why is an Adjustable Rate Mortgage Bad?

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Are you considering an adjustable rate mortgage (ARM) but wondering if it’s the right choice for you? While adjustable rate mortgages offer some benefits, it’s important to understand their drawbacks before making a decision. In this article, we will delve into the reasons why an adjustable rate mortgage may not be the best option for everyone. We’ll explore the intricacies of ARMs, their pros and cons, and address frequently asked questions to help you make an informed choice.

Understanding Adjustable Rate Mortgages

An adjustable rate mortgage, as the name suggests, is a type of home loan where the interest rate fluctuates over time. Unlike a fixed rate mortgage, which maintains a consistent interest rate throughout the loan term, an ARM offers an initial fixed-rate period followed by adjustment periods. During the initial fixed-rate period, typically spanning from three to ten years, the interest rate remains unchanged. After this period, the rate adjusts periodically based on market conditions.

The adjustment periods can vary, but common intervals include one, three, five, or ten years. During these periods, the interest rate can increase or decrease based on factors such as the performance of financial markets, the economy, and the terms outlined in the loan agreement.

Pros of Adjustable Rate Mortgages

Lower Initial Interest Rates

One of the primary advantages of an adjustable rate mortgage is the lower initial interest rate compared to a fixed rate mortgage. This can be particularly appealing for borrowers who plan to sell or refinance their property before the adjustable rate kicks in. During the initial fixed-rate period, borrowers can enjoy lower monthly payments and potentially save money, especially if they plan to relocate or upgrade their home in the near future.

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Potential Savings

In certain scenarios, an adjustable rate mortgage can lead to significant savings over the short term. If the initial fixed-rate period aligns with your homeownership plans and you sell or refinance your property before the adjustment period, you may benefit from the lower interest rates during that time. This can result in substantial savings, particularly if you anticipate a rise in income or plan to downsize to a smaller, more affordable home.

Flexibility for Refinancing or Selling

Adjustable rate mortgages can provide flexibility for borrowers who intend to refinance or sell their property before the adjustment period begins. If you plan to refinance into a fixed rate mortgage or sell the property within the initial fixed-rate period, an ARM allows you to take advantage of the lower interest rates without bearing the long-term risks associated with adjustable rates.

Cons of Adjustable Rate Mortgages

Uncertainty of Future Interest Rate Adjustments

One of the main concerns with adjustable rate mortgages is the uncertainty surrounding future interest rate adjustments. While the initial fixed-rate period offers stability, the following adjustment periods introduce the risk of increasing interest rates. The potential for higher monthly payments, especially if interest rates rise significantly, can create financial strain for borrowers who may not be adequately prepared to handle increased expenses.

Higher Monthly Payments after the Initial Period

Once the adjustment period begins, borrowers may face higher monthly payments due to the fluctuating interest rates. If the market conditions lead to an increase in interest rates, your mortgage payment could rise substantially, impacting your overall budget. This sudden increase in expenses can be particularly challenging if your income remains unchanged or if you’re not prepared for the potential financial burden.

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Risk of Negative Amortization

Certain types of adjustable rate mortgages carry the risk of negative amortization. Negative amortization occurs when your monthly payment is not sufficient to cover the interest charged, resulting in the unpaid interest being added to the loan balance. This can lead to an increase in the outstanding loan amount over time, making it more challenging to build equity in your home. It’s crucial to fully understand the terms of the loan and potential risks to avoid being caught off guard by negative amortization.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Are adjustable rate mortgages always bad?

No, adjustable rate mortgages are not inherently bad. They can be advantageous for certain individuals depending on their financial goals and risk tolerance. It’s essential to carefully evaluate your circumstances and consider the potential risks and benefits before making a decision.

How often do adjustable rate mortgages adjust?

The frequency of adjustments depends on the terms of the loan. Common adjustment periods include one, three, five, or ten years. It’s crucial to review the loan agreement to understand how often adjustments will occur and how they will be calculated.

Can I refinance an adjustable-rate mortgage?

Yes, it is possible to refinance an adjustable rate mortgage. Refinancing allows you to replace your current loan with a new one, potentially with more favorable terms, such as a fixed rate mortgage. However, it’s important to consider the costs associated with refinancing and assess if it aligns with your long-term financial goals.

What happens if interest rates drop significantly?

If interest rates drop significantly, an adjustable rate mortgage can offer the advantage of lower monthly payments during the adjustment period. However, it’s crucial to evaluate the potential risks associated with adjustable rates and consider if the savings outweigh the uncertainty of future rate adjustments.

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How can I predict future interest rate adjustments?

Predicting future interest rate adjustments can be challenging, as they are influenced by numerous factors beyond an individual’s control. Consulting with financial experts and staying informed about economic trends can provide valuable insights, but it’s important to remember that predicting market fluctuations is inherently uncertain.


While adjustable rate mortgages offer lower initial interest rates and potential savings during the fixed-rate period, they come with inherent risks. The uncertainty of future interest rate adjustments, the potential for higher monthly payments, and the risk of negative amortization are factors that borrowers must carefully consider. Before opting for an adjustable rate mortgage, it’s crucial to evaluate your financial goals, risk tolerance, and long-term plans for homeownership. Seek guidance from professionals in the mortgage industry to ensure you make an informed decision that aligns with your unique circumstances.

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